Achilles tendonitis


Achilles tendonitis is a common injury of the largest tendon in your body. It can withstand forces of 1,000 pounds or more, but it's the most frequently ruptured tendon, usually due to sports injuries.

Achilles tendonitis can be caused by:

  • Hill running or stair climbing
  • Overuse, stemming from the natural lack of flexibility in the calf muscles
  • Starting up too quickly after a layoff in exercise without stretching and warming up your foot
  • Trauma caused by sudden contraction of your calf muscles when putting out extra effort like in a sprint
  • Improper footwear and/or a tendency toward overpronation

Achilles tendonitis often begins with mild pain after exercise or running that gradually gets worse. Visit your podiatrist if you are experiencing the following:

  • Recurring localized pain along the tendon during or a few hours after running
  • Morning tenderness about an inch and a half above the point where the Achilles tendon is attached to your heel bone
  • Mild or severe swelling



Pain in the area between the arch and toes, or ball of the foot, is called metatarsalgia. The pain usually centers on one or more of the five bones (metatarsals) in this mid-portion of your foot. 

Metatarsalgia occurs when one of your metatarsal joints becomes painful or inflamed. This could be because of arthritis, foot injury, standing of hard surfaces like cement or tile floors, and specific footwear, like rigid-soled work boots. You may develop a callus under this inflamed joint. 

A simple change of shoes may solve the problem, and if it persists custom orthotics will help alleviate the pain and prevent overpronation.


Hammertoes are a deformity of the second, third, or fourth toes. Hammertoes are bent at the middle joint and can become rigid and need surgery. They are caused by shoes that don't fit properly, or muscle imbalance. If you have hammertoes, you might also have corns or calluses on the top of the middle joint  or on the tip of your toe. You may also feel pain in your toes and have difficulty finding comfortable shoes.

Wearing shoes with soft, roomy toe boxes and toe exercises help to stretch and strengthen the muscles in the toe so they stay flexible. You can also ask your podiatrist about straps, cushions, or nonmedicated corn pads to relieve your symptoms.

Diabetic shoes


If you have diabetes, choosing the right footwear is vital, even at the earliest stages of the disease.

People with diabetes should choose shoes that:

  • Accommodate, stabilize, and support deformities, loss of fatty tissue, hammertoes, and amputations. Many deformities need to be stabilized to relieve pain and avoid further damage or progression of the deformity.
  • Limit motion of joints. Limiting the motion of certain joints in the foot can decrease inflammation, relieve pain, and result in a more stable and functional foot.
  • Reduce shock and shear. Shock is the amount of vertical pressure on your foot, and shear is the horizontal movement within a shoe. Your footwear should keep your foot snugly in place, without being too tight. 
  • Relieve any area where there is excessive pressure on your foot, which could lead to skin problems or ulcers. 

Ankle sprains

If you feel pain following a twist or injury, swelling, and bruising, these could be symptoms of a sprained ankle. Ankle sprains are caused by an unnatural twisting or force on the ankle bones of your foot. One or more of your ligaments may have have excessive force on it. If you don't properly treat an ankle sprain, it could become a long-term problem. The type and duration of treatment depends on how bad the sprain is.

We treat ankle sprains by resting and elevating the ankle and applying ice to reduce swelling. Compressive bandages also may be used to immobilize and support the injury during healing. Serious ankle sprains may require surgery to repair the damaged ligaments.

To prevent ankle sprains, it's important to maintain strength, balance, and flexibility in the foot and ankle through staying active and wearing the right shoes for exercise and daily use.



Did you know almost one-fourth of all the bones in your body are in your feet? A broken bone in your foot or in one of your toes is often painful, but with proper care it won't slow you down for too long.

There are two types of foot fractures: stress fractures and general bone fractures. Stress fractures usually occur in the bones of the forefoot extending from the toes to the middle of the foot. These are like tiny cracks in the surface of your bone and can result from sudden increases in exercise especially long-distance running/walking, improper training techniques, or a change in surfaces.

Bone fractures aren't only on the surface of your bone, they extend through it. Podiatrists classify them as stable or displaced, depending on if the bone ends line up or not. Bone fractures result from trauma, such as dropping a heavy object on your foot. If the fractured bone doesn't break through the skin, it is called a closed fracture. If the fracture breaks through the skin, it is called an open fracture.

Common symptoms for any type of foot fracture include pain, swelling, and sometimes bruising. If you think you might have a foot fracture, see your podiatrist right away.

Ingrown toenails


Ingrown toenails are usually caused by trimming toenails too short, particularly on the sides of your big toes. Ingrown toenails happen when the sides of your toenail dig into your skin. Ingrown toenails are very common, but can be very painful and cause infection. 

In most cases, treating ingrown toenails is simple: soak your foot in warm, soapy water several times a day. Avoid wearing tight shoes or socks. If you have an infection, we might prescribe antibiotics. In severe and infection cases, we might need to surgically remove part or all of your ingrown toenail. 

how to prevent ingrown toenails:

  • Trim toenails straight across with no rounded corners
  • Ensure that your shoes and socks aren't too tight
  • Keep your feet clean at all times

Heel pain


Common sources of heel pain are Haglund's Deformity, heel calluses, heel fissures, and plantar fasciitis (heel spurs).

Haglund's Deformity

Haglund's Deformity (also known as pump bump or retrocalcaneal bursitis) is a painful enlargement on the back of your heel bone that gets irritated by shoes. You might see a red, painful, and swollen area at the back of the heel. It's more common in women because of wearing high heels. To address this foot problem, you can change shoes, soak your feet, or use anti-inflammatory medicine, but check with your podiatrist first.

Heel calluses

Heel or plantar calluses develop when one metatarsal bone is longer or lower than the others and it hits the ground with more force. Your skin under this bone thickens and causes irritation.

Heel calluses can usually be treated without surgery. In severe cases, a surgery called an osteotomy is performed to relieve the pressure on your bone. 

Heel fissures

When the skin on your heels cracks and bleeds, we call it heel fissures. This can be caused by wearing open-backed sandals or shoes that allow your heel to slip when you walk. Skin conditions like eczema and psoriasis can also lead to heel fissures. It's important to wear proper shoes to prevent heel fissures. Using deep skin moisturizers and lotions can help your foot to heal.

Plantar fasciitis

Most heel or arch pain is caused by a condition called plantar fasciitis, which means an inflammation on the bottom of your foot. Inside your foot a connective tissue called the plantar fascia stretches from the base of your toes, across the arch of the foot, into the heel bone. If your foot rolls inward excessively when you walk, this is called overpronation, and it causes plantar faciitis. This puts added tension on your plantar fascia and causes inflammation and pain.

We treat plantar faciitis heel pain with anti-inflammatory medications, ice packs, stretching exercises, orthotic devices, and physical therapy. In persistent cases, Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment (ESWT) may be used to treat the heel pain.



Athlete's Foot and fungal nails are the most common fungal foot problems. Fungus thrives in dark, warm moist areas, like your sweaty shoes. It can grow on your toenails, between your toes, and on the soles of your feet. Fungal problems can be caused by socks or shoes, heat, and humidity or by disorders like diabetes.

Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis)

Athlete's foot is a chronic fungus that spreads in places where people go barefoot, like public showers or pools. It starts between your toes or on the arch of your foot and then spreads to the bottom and sides. It ranges from mild scaling and itching to painful inflammation and blisters. 

Treating athlete's foot

The good news is there are many kinds of medication to treat your Athlete's Foot, depending on how bad it is. If your condition isn't serious, you can get over-the-counter and prescription powders, lotions, or ointments. It's best to consult your podiatrist before you take any new medicine. If your Athlete's foot doesn't improve, we'll prescribe stronger medication.

Fungal Nails

Fungal nails are usually more resistant and difficult to treat than Athlete's foot. We use topical (creams) or oral (pills) antifungal medications. If you have persistent fungus, we might recommend removing your nail.

Once we treat the nail fungus, it's important to prevent it from coming back. Fungus can travel from nail to skin and vice versa, so keep your feet dry. Dry feet are less likely to become infected or spread the infection. 

preventing nail fungus:

  • Don't share nail clippers or files
  • Don't share shoes or socks
  • Don't cut your nails too short
  • Wear dry cotton socks, and change them often
  • Keep your shoes dry and well-fitting (fungus loves tight, enclosed, moist shoes)
  • Wear shower sandals or shoes when you are at a public pool or shower.

Diabetic foot care

Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by high levels of sugar in your blood. It decreases your body's ability to fight infections, and it is especially harmful to your feet. 

If your nervous system is damaged because of diabetes, you might not be able to feel your feet normally. Your body might not produce that right oil and sweat that lubricates the skin of your foot, and this can put unusual pressure on the skin, bones, and joints of your foot. As this continues and escalates, you can develop sores on your feet.

If you have diabetes, it's important to catch foot problems early or before they happen and get the right care.

Diabetes and Your Feet

When it comes to your feet, several risk factors can increase your chances of developing diabetic foot problems. It's important to make sure your shoes fit correctly if you are diabetic - poorly fitting shoes are one of the biggest causes of diabetic foot problems. Shoes that don't fit cause red or sore spots, blisters, corns, calluses, or consistent pain. If you have diabetes and flat feet, bunions, or hammertoes, you might need to ask your podiatrist for prescription shoes or orthotics to protect your feet.

Poorly controlled diabetes damages the nerves in your feet, which is called peripheral neuropathy. Normal nerves allow people to feel if their shoes are too tight or rubbing against their feet. But with diabetes, you might not feel if you get cuts, scrapes and blisters, and they could become worse quickly.

some things that the health of your feet:

  • Poor circulation
  • Trauma to the foot
  • Infections
  • Smoking

Diabetes can be extremely dangerous to your feet. You can avoid losing a toe, foot, or leg by following proper prevention techniques offered by your podiatrist.